Clinical Implementation

Following is a digest of pharmacogenomics journal articles pertaining to clinical implementation. The SNP•its editorial team selects articles for inclusion based on clinical relevance and scientific validity. Journal articles that are most readily applicable and relevant to practicing clinicians are selected for a SNP•its Study Summary, which discusses findings and clinical implications of a pharmacogenomics study in the context of the larger evidence base.

Article Citation & LinkTypeMonthSNP•its Study Summary
Zhang G et al. Web resources for pharmacogenomics. Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics. 2015;13:51-4.Descriptive2015-02
Yip V et al. Pharmacogenetic markers of drug efficacy and toxicity. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2015;98:61–70.Review2015-07
Yip V et al. Pharmacogenetic markers of drug efficacy and toxicity. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2015;98:61–70.Review2015-07
Willyard C. Copy number variations’ effect on drug response still overlooked. Nat Med. 2015;21:206.Perspective2015-03
Williams MS. Genomic medicine implementation: Learning by example. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2014;166(1):8-14.  Commentary2014-03 
Westervelt P et al. Drug-gene interactions: inherent variability in drug maintenance dose requirements. P T. 2014;39:630-7.Review2014-09 
Weitzel KW et al. Clinical pharmacogenetics implementation: Approaches, successes, and challenges. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2014;166:56-67. Descriptive report2014-03 
Van Driest S et al. Clinically actionable genotypes among 10,000 patients with preemptive pharmacogenomic testing. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2014;95:423-31.Descriptive2014-04Preemptive genotyping: More than 90% of patients have actionable result
Trinidad SB et al. “Getting off the bus closer to your destination”: patients’ views about pharmacogenetic testing. Perm J. 2015;19(3):21–7.Cohort2015-07
Teutsch S et al. Utility before business [Commentary]. Genet Med. 2014; [Epub ahead of print]. Commentary2014-07 
Teng K et al. Institutional Profile: Cleveland Clinics Center for Personalized Healthcare: setting the stage for value-based care. Pharmacogenomics. 2014;15:587-91. Perspective2014-04 
Shuldiner AR et al. Implementation of pharmacogenetics: The University of Maryland personalized anti-platelet pharmacogenetics program. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2014;166:76-84. Descriptive report2014-03 
Shirts BH et al. CSER and eMERGE: current and potential state of the display of genetic information in the electronic health record. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2015 Jul 3 [Epub ahead of print].Survey2015-07Informatics: Variability in EHR display of genomic data influences clinical use
Seripa D et al. Measuring pharmacogenetics in special groups: geriatrics. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2015;11:1073–88.Review2015-07
Schweitzer J et al. Pharmacogenomics in dermatology: taking patient treatment to the next level. J Dermatolog Treat. 2015;26:94-6.Commentary2015-02
Ratain MJ et al. Meaningful use of pharmacogenetics. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2014;96:650–2.Commentary2014-12
Rasmussen-Torvik LJ et al. Design and anticipated outcomes of the eMERGE-PGx project: a multicenter pilot for preemptive pharmacogenomics in electronic health record systems. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2014;96:482–9.Descriptive2014-10
Rao US et al. Strategies for implementation of an effective pharmacogenomics program in pharmacy education. Pharmacogenomics. 2015;16:905-11.Review2015-07
Ramsey L et al. The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guideline for SLCO1B1 and Simvastatin-Induced Myopathy: 2014 Update. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2014; [Epub ahead of print]. 
Guideline2014-07Updated SLCO1B1–simvastatin guideline provides resources to support clinical implementation
Ramos EM et al. Characterizing genetic variants for clinical action. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2014;166(1):93-104. Review2014-03 
Plunkett-Rondeau J et al. Training future physicians in the era of genomic medicine: trends in undergraduate medical genetics education. Genet Med. 2015 Feb 12 [Epub ahead of print].Survey2015-02
Petersen KE et al. Personalized Medicine, Availability, and Group Disparity: An Inquiry into How Physicians Perceive and Rate the Elements and Barriers of Personalized Medicine. Public Health Genomics. 2014 May 21. [Epub ahead of print] Survey2014-05 
Parens E. Drifting away from informed consent in the era of personalized medicine. Hastings Cent Rep. 2015;45:16–20.Opinion2015-07
O’Connor SK et al. Expansion of pharmacogenomics into the community pharmacy: billing considerations. Pharmacogenomics. 2015;16:175–80.Editorial2015-03
Owusu-Obeng A et al. Emerging Roles for Pharmacists in Clinical Implementation of Pharmacogenomics. Pharmacotherapy. 2014; [Epub ahead of print].Perspective2014-09 Pharmacists play key roles in clinical pharmacogenomics
Overby CL et al. Making pharmacogenomic-based prescribing alerts more effective: A scenario-based pilot study with physicians. J Biomed Inform. 2015;55:249–59.Scenario-based pilot study2015-06
Overby CL et al. Physician attitudes toward adopting genome-guided prescribing through clinical decision support.  J Pers Med. 2014;4(1):35-49. Survey2014-02Factors influencing physician adoption of genome-guided prescribing
O'Donnell PH et al. Adoption of a clinical pharmacogenomics implementation program during outpatient care-initial results of the University of Chicago "1200 Patients Project." Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2014;166:68-75. Descriptive report2014-03 
Nishimura AA et al. Development of clinical decision support alerts for pharmacogenomic incidental findings from exome sequencing. Genet Med. 2015 Mar 5 [Epub ahead of print].Proof-of-Concept 2015-03
Morse BL et al. Is personalized medicine a dream or a reality? Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences. 2014;1–11.Review2014-09 
Morse BL et al. Is personalized medicine a dream or a reality? Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2015;52:1–11.Review2015-02
Mooney SD. Progress towards the integration of pharmacogenomics in practice. Human Genetics. 2014; [Epub ahead of print].Review2014-09 
Mikat-Stevens NA et al. Primary-care providers’ perceived barriers to integration of genetics services: a systematic review of the literature. Genet Med. 2014 Sep [Epub ahead of print]Systematic review2014-09 
Mega JL et al. Population and personalized medicine in the modern era. JAMA. 2014;312:1969–70.Viewpoint2014-11
McCormack RT et al. Codevelopment of genome-based therapeutics and companion diagnostics: insights from an Institute of Medicine roundtable.JAMA. 2014;311(14):1395-6.Perspective2014-04 
Mattick J. The impact of genomics on the future of medicine and health. Med J Aust. 2014;201:17-20. Perspective2014-07 
Manolio TA et al. Leading the way to genomic medicine. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2014;166(1):1-7. Invited commentary2014-03 
Li L. A horizon-prioritizing method can identify gaps among genomic application guidelines [commentary]. Clinical Pharmacol Ther. 2014; 95:368-9. Commentary2014-04 
Levy KD et al Prerequisites to Implementing a Pharmacogenomics Program in a Large Health-Care System. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2014 May 7; [Epub ahead of print]. Commentary2014-05 
Levy KD et a. FDA’s draft guidance on laboratory-developed tests increases clinical and economic risk to adoption of pharmacogenetic testing. J Clin Pharmacol. 2015;55:725–7.Opinion2015-07
Lee JW et al. The Emerging Era of Pharmacogenomics: Current Successes, Future Potential, and Challenges. Clin Genet. 2014 Mar 29; [Epub ahead of print]. Review2014-05 
Lazaridis KN et al. Implementing individualized medicine into the medical practice. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2014;166:15-23.  Descriptive report2014-03 
Larson EA et al. Integration of genomics in primary care. Am J Med. 2015 May 30 [Epub ahead of print].Review2015-05
Katsanis SH et al. Perspectives on genetic and genomic technologies in an academic medical center: the duke experience. J Pers Med. 2015;5:67–82.Survey2015-04
Kaplun A et al. PGMD: a comprehensive manually curated pharmacogenomic database. Pharmacogenomics J. 2015 May 5 [Epub ahead of print].Descriptive2015-05
Johansen Taber K et al. Pharmacogenomic knowledge gaps and educational resource needs among physicians in selected specialties. Pharmgenomics Pers Med. 2014;7:145-62.Survey2014-07 Bridging the pharmacogenomics knowledge gap: Study reveals current needs, strategies
Jennings BA et al. Scanning the human genome and the horizon: the potential and pitfalls of pharmacogenetics and stratified medicine. Br J Gen Pract. 2015;65:284–5.Editorial2015-06
Janssens ACJW et al. Useless until proven effective: the clinical utility of preemptive pharmacogenetic testing. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2014;96:652–4.Commentary2014-12
Jameson JL et al. Precision medicine--personalized, problematic, and promising. New Engl J Med. 2015;372:2229–34.Perspective2015-06
Hoffman JM et al. PG4KDS: A model for the clinical implementation of pre-emptive pharmacogenetics. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet.  2014;166:45-55. Descriptive report2014-03 
Hillebrenner E et al. FDA oversight of laboratory-developed tests will facilitate adoption of pharmacogenetic testing into routine clinical care. J Clin Pharmacol. 2015;55:728–30.Opinion2015-07
Hillebrenner E et al. FDA oversight of laboratory-developed tests will facilitate adoption of pharmacogenetic testing into routine clinical care. J Clin Pharmacol. 2015;55:728–30.Commentary2015-07
Haycox A et al. Through a Glass Darkly: Economics and Personalised Medicine. Pharmacoeconomics. 2014 Aug; [Epub ahead of print].Perspective

Haga SB et al. Potential use of auxiliary labels to promote patient awareness of pharmacogenetic testing. Pharmacogenomics. 2015;16:299–301.Commentary2015-03
Haga SB et al. Challenges to integrating pharmacogenetic testing into medication therapy management. J Manage Care Spec Pharm. 2015;21:346–52.Commentary2015-03
Haga SB et al. Nurses’ communication of pharmacogenetic test results as part of discharge care. Pharmacogenomics. 2015;16:251–6.Commentary2015-03
Haga SB et al. Pilot study: incorporation of pharmacogenetic testing in medication therapy management services. Pharmacogenomics. 2014;15:1729–37.Descriptive2014-11
Goulding R et al. Genotype-guided Drug Prescribing: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Control Trials. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2014; [Epub ahead of print]. Meta-analysis2014-07 
Gillis NK et al. Evidence required to demonstrate clinical utility of pharmacogenetic testing: the debate continues. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2014;96:655–7.Commentary2014-12
Ferreri SP et al. Implementation of a pharmacogenomics service in a community pharmacy. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2014;54:172-80. Descriptive report2014-03 
Feero WG et al. Translational research is a key to nongeneticist physicians' genomics education. Genet Med. 2014 [Epub ahead of print]. Commentary2014-05 
Dunnenberger HM et al. Preemptive clinical pharmacogenetics implementation: current programs in five United States medical centers. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2014 Oct 2 [Epub ahead of print].Review2014-10
Dorfman EH et al. Pharmacogenomics in diverse practice settings: implementation beyond major metropolitan areas. Pharmacogenomics. 2015;16:227–37.Survey2015-03
Dhurandhar EJ et al. Even modest prediction accuracy of genomic models can have large clinical utility. Front Genet. 2014;5:417.Descriptive2014-11
Crawford J et al. The business of genomic testing: a survey of early adopters. Genetics in Medicine. 2014; [Epub ahead of print]. Survey2014-07
Crawford J et al. The business of genomic testing: a survey of early adopters. Genetics in Medicine. 2014; [Epub ahead of print]. Survey2014-07 
Claudio-Campos K et al. Pharmacogenetics of drug-metabolizing enzymes in US Hispanics. Drug Metabol Personal Ther. 2015;30:87–105.Review2015-06
Carere DA et al. Consumers report lower confidence in their genetics knowledge following direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing. Genet Med. 2015 Mar 26 [Epub ahead of print].Survey2015-03
Burke W et al. Closing the gap between knowledge and clinical application: challenges for genomic translation. PLoS Genetics. 2015;11:e1004978. Review2015-03
Biesecker LG et al. Diagnostic clinical genome and exome sequencing. N Engl J Med. 2014. 19;370:2418-25.  Review2014-07 
Almomani B et al. Pharmacogenetics and the print media: what is the public told? BMC Med Gen. 2015;16:32.Cross Sectional2015-05
Alexander KM et al. Implementation of personalized medicine services in community pharmacies: Perceptions of independent community pharmacists. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2014;54:510-7.Survey2014-09 
Alagoz O et al. Cost-effectiveness of one-time genetic testing to minimize lifetime adverse drug reactions. Pharmacogenomics J. 2015 May 19 [Epub ahead of print].Cost-effectiveness analysis2015-05
Abul-Husn NS et al. Implementation and utilization of genetic testing in personalized medicine. Pharmacogenomics Pers Med. 2014;7:227–40.Review

Abul-Husn NS et al. Implementation and utilization of genetic testing in personalized medicine. Pharmgenomics Pers Med. 2014;7:227–40.Review2014-10